Key to Nuclear Models
Copyright 1997, 2002 by Arnold J. Barzydlo
For a "bogus" down quark (an Up quark with a pinned
vector boson) the pinned vector boson contributes the negative-surfaced
charge mirror. The description of how these charge mirrors are construed to manifest
the charge force is out of the scope of this web site at this time. It should be
adequate for testing purposes to simply know that a (bogus) down quark has an
outer negative surface, and an inner positive surface, the net charge being
equivalent to -1/3. I am not entirely certain if the standard down quark has
two disparate surfaces like the (bogus) down quark, or if it has two negative
surfaces. I tend to favor disparate surfaces as it may provide an explanation
for the structure of mesons as a back to front stacking
of quarks of the same variety. There is another very significant reason why I favor
this model, but since I'm not yet prepared to reveal it, I'll focus on the meson
argument. Quark-anti-quark pairings might not work to explain mesons in this model,
as antiquarks are made of colliding anti-hadron strings.
Pairing a quark with an anti-quark should lead to the immediate annihilation of both
in a shower of photons. I guess the lifetime of mesons is pretty short, and this is
uncertain ground for me, as I have focused almost entirely on stable,
long-lived particles. What I'm saying is, my concept of meson structure may be
based more on ignorance than on fact, so don't toss the quark-anti-quark meson
model out the window just yet.
The models are color coded for easy identification of quarks.
Up quarks are always shown in red.
Down quarks are typically dark blue, however on
some of the models you may also notice light blue quarks where
vector bosons are pinned. (I did not follow this
convention on all of the models, the N4-22P, P4-21P, and one of the N1 examples
are the only exceptions.) A quark with a pinned string is actually an Up quark,
but the pinning of a vector boson allows the Up quark to emulate a Down quark in
the nuclear shell. Sharp observers will also notice that many of the models have
two-tone Down quarks... that is, they are blue on the outer surface, but pink or
red on the inner surface. This is not an error, it is indicative of the two charge
surfaces of a down quark. (I only did this on some of the models.) The theory underlying
the nuclear models suggest that all quarks have two surfaces manifesting
charge mirrors, in the Up quark, both charge mirrors are
positive, but the Down quark has both a positive and negative charge mirror. I believe
the negative mirror usually appears on the exterior surface of a shell, while the positive
mirror faces the interior of the shell. I suspect this posture is due to charge influences
nearby, so I would consider it possible that there could be circumstances which would
flip the posture of the Down quarks' charge mirrors.|
What is a Quark?
A quark, in this theory, is a collision cell of
light strings. The light strings
intermix in this collision cell, and form a very special pair of
mirror-like surfaces that support the phenomenon of charge. The
collision cell (quark) is conserving several properties of the colliding
strings, and is a quasi-particle, or constituent particle in a larger
structure. The larger particle structure is generally conserved by the
laws of baryon number or lepton number conservation. A particle generally
requires quarks in multiples of three for stability, possibly as
a function of conservation of integer charge. These conservation laws
govern the cosmological existence of stable elementary particles, and
should be construed at this level as constraints imposed by the
geometry of space-time for elementary particles, of which quarks
are subordinate entities.
Only three types of quarks are dealt with in this theory,
and an Up quark which pins an external string to emulate a Down quark,
called the "Bogus Down" quark. The bogus
down quark is the most important in confirming the nuclear shell models,
bogus down quarks are the pinning sites of external strings which form the
lobes of electron orbitals. The Charm, Strange, Top and Bottom quarks are
collision cells sporting additional strings, generally found only in high
energy investigations as short-lived entities, and I have not bothered to
explore them fully as I doubt their immediate usefulness to chemists. What
I have provided, if it proves to be correct, represents some extremely useful
information to chemists. If the charge structure and electron configurations
of nuclei can be fully and accurately modeled, computers would be capable of
modeling any chemical compound, or design new materials at the whim of the
chemist. The days of experimentally sloshing reagents in test tubes might
come to an end.
There is also some data associated with the models which requires explanation.
The values for "L1, L2, etc..." are Loop Values. If you were to cut the loop and
measure its linear dimension, it would be this long. Well, actually, my models
are 1/2 the given scale. When I first started building the models from wire
I used 18 gauge solid wire, making the models large enough for classroom
demonstration. (The very first models were drawn on balloons, then ping pong
balls.) Since then the models have been getting unmanageably large, so I went
with 22 gauge solid wire and cut all Loop dimensions by half. If you build
the models, use an engineering rule with a "20's" scale to measure the wires.
The 20's scale will let you make a direct measurement of the wire as given
in the description, yet still produce reasonably sized models.
Scaling String by Mass of the Nuclear Shells
As long as I'm talking about the scale of the models, I should point out that
the scale of these models are based on an assumption I know to be false, but
there is a sound reason for doing so. The false assumption is that the energy
of the string is proportional to its linear dimension. This is not entirely false,
it just doesn't go far enough. If the frequency of the
nuclear strings were a
constant, this assumption would be true, but the frequency of the nuclear strings
has a significant impact on their length. I once suspected that the nuclear
strings in the various shells of a single nucleus would all be at the same frequency.
That assumption has proven to be false, the nucleus is more flexible than I had imagined.
I believe chemists have found a P3 shell 11Li (lithium) with a halo of neutrons
around an 8Li or 9Li core. This is an excellent candidate
for a shell system running shells at very different nuclear frequencies. It has also
become apparent in the course of working with the geometry that neutron shells (which
typically have more string than the proton shells) generally take the inner position.
A shift in frequency is the most obvious way of expanding and shrinking
nuclear shells, and the highest frequency shells should be at the bottom of the stack
(interior of the nucleus). As a rule of thumb, if you double the frequency of a nuclear
string, you halve its length. It also appears as though the local energy-density of the
space-time medium has much to do with the quiescent frequency of the nuclear strings
immersed in that medium. As you penetrate into the nucleus, the energy-density gradient
ramps up quickly, and the string frequencies appear to be coupled to that gradient.
(Note: The atomic spectrum of an atom may be a harmonic of a nuclear string's
frequency. A pinned vector boson probably bears a harmonic relationship to the nuclear
string frequency of the particular nuclear shell it is pinned to.)
Loop Equations and Snap Point Equations
I've found these two descriptive equations
of the models coupled with the pictures to be an adequate description of the models
for the purpose of reproducing them. The coefficients in the Loop Equation tell you
how many loops of each size will be required. The solution to the loop equation is
always a multiple of 51 inches (arbitrarily chosen), and is representative of the
mass of the particle. The Snap Point Equation describes the number of string crossings
in the model. Every Down quark requires 4 snap points, corresponding to the intersection
of four strings which characterize a Down quark. Every Up quark requires three snap points.
By calculating the number of down quarks x4 plus the number of Up quarks x3 you arrive
at the "Required Snap Points" (R.S.P.). If the nuclear geometry
has less "Available Snap Points" (A.S.P.) than the shell
requires, Pinned Vector Bosons (P.V.B.'s)
must be added to make up the difference. A pinned vector boson contributes one
snap point. The snap point equation has an influence on the loop equation in
some models. If two nuclear strings have the same linear dimension (loop size)
but a different number of snap points, they are characterized in the loop equation
as a seperate entry.
Shell Naming Convention
I tried to give the shells descriptive names. These names take the form of P6-30PB, and
N5-3(10)P. The first letter/number pair tells you if it is a proton (P) or neutron (N)
shell, and the number tells you how many particles (protons or neutrons) are in the shell.
(Multiply that number by three to find how many actual quarks are in the shell.) This number
is followed by a dash to seperate it from the numbers which follow. The first digit tells
you how many loop sizes are used to create the shell, in the case of P6-30PB that would be
three, so you know from this that the loop equation will be a third degree equation. The next
digit(s) indicate how many pinned vector bosons the model requires. In the case of N5-3(10)P
there are 10 pinned vector bosons, and since there is more than one digit in this case, the
number 10 has been bracketed. For P6-30PB there are no (0) pinned vector bosons, so a zero
is indicated in this position. There may be one or more letters following the number, and
this is what they mean:
P - A Polar Star Shell
S - Contains a Sinusoidal String
PS - A Polar Star Shell with a Sinusoidal String
CG - A special case indicating that the described shell represents the Core Geometry of
the shell, no Filler Circlets or P.V.B.s are indicated, and thus it is not a complete
solution, but merely the structural geometry on which multiple solutions may be modeled.
A, B, C, ... - More than one shell was found to have the same name by this naming convention,
thus they must be further differentiated by a letter series. It probably would be smart to
place this letter in brackets to avoid confusion, but I have not done so, as the situation
has only arisen twice thus far.
So the name P6-30PB means it is a Proton Shell containing 6 protons that was
built using three (3) different loop sizes, the geometry of which required zero (0)
pinned vector bosons, and it represents a Polar Star solution. The "B" at the
end tells you that there is another similar shell named P6-30PA.
Shell Stacking is the Key
Remember as you view various nuclear shells that you must stack proton and neutron
shells to build the various isotopes. One of the great difficulties I have had
with these models is that their physical construction does not permit me to easily
stack the wire-frame models for detailed study of their charge distributions and
vector properties. That is the purpose of this website. I am hoping to generate
enough interest in nuclear geometry to spur some computer modeling of the
structures, which would permit stacking the shells for detailed analysis and
confirmation of the physical models. Interested computer programmers should
examine the empirical laws of the geometry, realizing
that I have not yet given a complete description of string properties.
How to Build Them